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April 18, 2014
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The Bucket
Produced by: Judith Kampfner
When you lower a bucket into the ocean, from a pier or off the side of a ship, it may well seem to come up containing nothing but clear water. But scientists now know that every teaspoonful of that water can contain a hundred-million tiny viruses. That sounds sinister, but without them the ocean couldn't function. Every day, marine viruses invade bacteria and other organisms, releasing their nutrients to the underwater food chain. Only since the late 1980's have marine biologists been aware of how many viruses are indigenous to the ocean, and how powerful and varied they are. They differ radically in size, shape, and DNA blueprint -- so much so that totally novel DNA keeps being discovered, with implications for anything from anti-aging creams to anti-cancer drugs and evolutionary science. Far from being a bad thing, these amazing marine viruses are useful, dramatic, novel, and dynamic; imagine that all hiding in your bucket of clear water! Producer Judith Kampfner travels from the coast of Plymouth in England to Santa Monica to meet with some of the intrepid pioneers who are on the trail of these new natural marvels.

Photograph of algae, Emiliania Huxleyi, was provided with permission by The Natural History Museum, London (Dr. Jeremy Young) and University of Nebraska-Lincoln (Angie Fox) / 2009.

Program Credits

The Bucket was produced by Judith Kampfner, and mixed by Jared Weissbrot with support from science editor Barbara Culliton. This program is part of the series "World of Viruses" produced with support from SEPA, the Science Education Partnership Award Program at NIH, the National Center for Research Resources, in collaboration with NET Radio, the Nebraska Center for Virology and the University of Nebraska.

Resources

Links:
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
This is a research institute that stays abreast with the latest technology to understand the relationship between marine ecosystems, global climate and the environment. One of it's scientists, Dr. Willie Wilson is featured on the program.

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine
A report on the diversity of marine viruses.

Viruses in Arctic Ocean likely to decrease carbon sink efficiency
Viruses play an important part of the ocean's cycles, including the marine food web.

World of Viruses
Check out our collection of documentaries that focus on different viruses, from those necessary for the environment to others detrimental to our health.

Books:
Microbial Ecology of the Oceans
by: Ralph Mitchell, David L. Kirchman 2008
The new findings in terms of the role of viruses and microbes are richly discussed and analyzed.

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Programs by Judith Kampfner
Birthday Suit
Every Tree Tells A Story
The Busker and the Diva
Yellow and Black
The Bucket
Citizenship Diary
The President's Mother
Tuning into the Enemy
Who's Got the Dog?
War and Forgiveness
Foot and Mouth Disease
Mother-In-Law

If you liked this program, you may also enjoy:
Clinic, The
HPV and Men
World of Viruses:Flu Pandemic
HPV - the Shy Virus
Mosquitoes in Iquitos

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